July 12, 2010

The belly button theory of sports

Scientists have found the reason why blacks dominate on the running track and whites in the swimming pool: it's in their belly-buttons, a study published Monday shows.

What's important is not whether an athlete has an innie or an outie but where his or her navel is in relation to the rest of the body, says the study published in the International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics.

The navel is the center of gravity of the body, and given two runners or swimmers of the same height, one black and one white, "what matters is not total height but the position of the belly-button, or center of gravity," Duke University professor Andre Bejan, the lead author of the study, told AFP.

"It so happens that in the architecture of the human body of West African-origin runners, the center of gravity is significantly higher than in runners of European origin," which puts them at an advantage in sprints on the track, he said.

Individuals of West African-origin have longer legs than European-origin athletes, which means their belly-buttons are three centimeters (1.18 inches) higher than whites', said Bejan.
That means the black athletes have a "hidden height" that is three percent greater than whites', which gives them a significant speed advantage on the track.

For example, I'm about the same height as Michael Jordan, but not exactly the same shape. But I am a better swimmer than Michael Jordan, in that I can swim. (Despite spending many years around luxurious swimming pools, Jordan is said to have never learned how to swim because he finds it unpleasant to immediately sink to the bottom of the pool.) In proportions, I'm closer to Michael Phelps, the Human Surfboard swimmer, who is tall but has relatively short legs.

All this is not exactly new news. O.J. Simpson gave a more detailed explanation of black and white physiological differences to Time Magazine in 1977.

52 comments:

stari_momak said...

Tragically, this all comes too late for Al Campanis.

keypusher said...

Many scientists have avoided studying why blacks make better sprinters and whites better swimmers because of what the study calls the "obvious" race angle.

Yeah, because God forbid we should study that.

But Bejan said the study he conducted with Edward Jones, a professor at Howard University in Washington, and Duke graduate Jordan Charles, focused on the athletes' geographic origins and biology, not race, which the authors of the study call a "social construct."

Bejan is white, originally from Romania, and Jones is black, from South Carolina.


So that makes the study OK. A new wrinkle on tokenism: putting a black scientist on your team so you can research racial issues.

Also, I'm going to go way out a limb and suggest that the black advantage in sprinting is not solely due to the placement of the belly button.

Couchscientist said...

It's a good intro for the non-hbd people out there, although like you say, nothing new really. Funny that the only way they could talk about black running advantage was to pair it with white swimming advantage. Most people are obsessed with complete equality, but they have trouble supressing the obvious truth of black advantage in running&jumping. If pressed, they will say: everything is equal except blacks maybe better at running. Now they can feel better about that, b/c whites are better at swimming. But, it's a start because while more fair in their minds, it is not equal. Maybe we should employ the same strategy, when talking about white iq advantage, pair it with black confidence advantage. Of course to do that, we'd have to pretend extra confidence was a good thing. (Pairing white iq advantage with black physical advantage does not take the sting away enough)

Jokah Macpherson said...

I looked up the OJ Simpson Time article and all I can say is, "Wow." Thirty-three years later nothing has changed. It could have been written yesterday (although I doubt they would have contacted Mr. Simpson for comment if it were).

jody said...

it's wrong. a good competitive swimmer can come from almost any group. international participation in swimming is similar to tennis. lots of athletes from everywhere.

the best distance swimmer right now is oussama mellouli from north africa. he is number 2 at 400, number 2 at 800, and number 1 at 1500. there's another north african, ahmed mathlouthi, coming up behind him. many of the other fastest guys in the 400 and 800 are from south korea and china.

dark africans have at least one very strong disincentive towards being in the water for hours every day: water messes up their skin. in a way which does not happen to other groups. my brother has coached cullen jones, the fastest black american swimmer ever, and who has the american record at 50 meters (though that was while wearing a then-legal, now-banned suit). jones switched from basketball to swimming in high school. many other black american basketball players could also make the switch, and some have. the university of florida regularly recruits black americans for NCAA swimming. basketball players have the right physiology from swimming. tall, long limbs, big hands and feet.

anony-mouse said...

That's enough navel-gazing.

Anonymous said...

So does something about the biraciality of dominicans aid them specifically in baseball?

Also, am I missing something about soccer/futbol that allows Europeans to continue to dominate? It seems to me to be a sprinter's sport like basketball and football receiver positions.

Hopefully Anonymous

http://www.hopeanon.typepad.com

Harold said...

Anyone who has seen Mat Rogers weave through the defence knows that a low belly button, and thus low centre of gravity, can be put to good use in running games.

asfasdsfsf said...

No matter where one's belly button is, if built like Usain Bolt one's gonna run fast.

adsfadssdf said...

I think the writer for this article is afraid to touch on other more significant factors, like muscle mass and density. Blacks have more dense hard muscles and bones mass, therefore they don't float as good. They are good at sprint swimming but not in longer distances.

Suppose one runner has a belly button of a black guy but with muscle mass/bone density of a white guy while another has a belly button of a white guy but the muscle mass/bone density of the black guy. I'll bet the second guy will win.

While this article isn't entirely wrong, it is just another attempt to divert attetion from the thing that really matters: blacks have more dense muscles and are stronger, implication of which is: if they aren't excelling in sports, they could be dangerous on the streets.

We should call it political 'bellybuttoning' of an issue. Its meaning: attempt by PC liberals to explain bio-social phenomena by focusing on secondary factors while ignoring or suppressing primary factors.

Anonymous said...

JORDAN: I went swimming with a close friend one day, and we were out wading and riding the waves coming in. The current was so strong it took him under and he locked up on me. It's called the death lock, when they know they're in trouble and about to die. I almost had to break his hand. He was gonna take me with him.

PLAYBOY: Did you save him?

JORDAN: No, he died. I don't go into the water anymore.

PLAYBOY: How old were you?

JORDAN: I was really young. About seven or eight years old. Now I ain't going near the water. I can't swim and I ain't messing with the water.


That would seem like a more obvious reason for Jordan to avoid swimming.

n/a said...

"blacks have more dense muscles"

No, they don't. Blacks have more intramuscular fat than whites.

"and are stronger"

No, they aren't.

"While this article isn't entirely wrong"

The authors estimate the average black should have a 1.5% (or about 0.15 seconds in the 100m) advantage in sprinting based on biomechanical differences alone. I'm afraid this study puts some crimp in your onanism: if the authors are "not entirely wrong" and if all else were equal or in favor of blacks, if we extrapolate several standard deviations out we should expect even larger differences than we actually see among elite level sprinters. Since we don't, there's not a lot of room to argue blacks run faster because they are "stronger". It's also telling how closely the advent of black dominance in the 100m coincides with the rise of widespread anabolic steroid use.

kaka said...

adsadsadsad....

the thing that really matters: blacks have more dense muscles and are stronger


Why to you keep repeating the same false popularisms here about W.African supremacy that have already been debunked? See the last few posts in this thread by Steve.

To specifically address your repeated false claim that W.Africans are the strongest:

* Euros dominate all strength sports like powerlifting, strongman, shotput, hammer, discus, etc. Since you particularly like to disparage "geeky" Japanese, note that there have been 10 Japanese and Chinese world champions powerlifters in the past 20yrs but not a single African or Carribean (perhaps the highest W.African genetic concentration outside Africa).

* Euros dominate nearly all fighting sports like boxing, wrestling, and UFC (less). Your lame excuse that imaginary great black boxers with no major crossover sport opportunity would rather drive taxis or collect unemployment than deign to whip Euros is a joke.

Again, since you hold Asians up as the lamest of athletes, note that there are 4 current Japanese world boxing champions and 0 from the entire continent of Africa and 0 from high W.African genetic Carribean nations. Although again, a W.African/Euro (esp Hispanic) mix seems to be a good mix in the lighter divisions.

Thomas said...

I think it has something to do with the way the phlogiston moves in different epicycles in black and white bodies.

Anonymous said...

Blacks will only look like good athletes if you concentrate on certain specific sports. They are just specialized in those traits. The fact that Whites win far more Olympic medals than blacks proves that Whites are overall better athletes. That is because Whites are far more generalized in their physical abilities.

adfasdfasdf said...

"Blacks will only look like good athletes if you concentrate on certain specific sports. They are just specialized in those traits. The fact that Whites win far more Olympic medals than blacks proves that Whites are overall better athletes. That is because Whites are far more generalized in their physical abilities."

Chinese won the most medals in 2008, so they must be the best athletes.

OneSTDV said...

Can Jimmy the Greek please finally get a posthumous "pardon"?

stari_momak said...

C. Jones is the exception that proves the rule ... good at 50 meters, the shortest swimming race and a race that didn't even exist at the international level until around 20 years ago. I can't help but wonder if some of the 100m guys could swim that race faster, but aren't interested because it isn't a 'classic' race.

Oh, and according to wiki, Jones was an age-group swimmer from an early age... he did not 'switch from basketball to swimming'.

Gc said...

Low center of gravity means an advantage in wrestling. That makes a takedown more difficult.
Btw best p4p boxer today is of course Manny Pacquiao, born in Philippines. I`ve never seen such fast hands before.

Anonymous said...

Scientists have found the reason why blacks dominate on the running track and whites in the swimming pool


It's shocking that Yahoo News felt able to print those words.

Anonymous said...

Another observation about belly buttons that I've thought about for years, but never had the opportunity to express...

I have observed lots of black and white women in bikinis (non-athletes, mostly models) and, in general, the appearance of their belly buttons is distinct. White women tend to have innies, to the extent that the navel looks like a slot or hole. Black women tend to have almost-outies, in that you see a nub which protrudes to some extent. All of these women have taut stomachs, sometimes with discernible abs. Could childbirth be a factor?

ben tillman said...

The OJ Simpson article in Time (5/9/77):

Sport: The Black Dominance

nooffensebut said...

n/a,

You have already acknowledged that blacks have more androgen receptor transactivation due to having fewer CAG and GGC repeats in the AR gene promoter. Why would that not result in a better level of muscle mass? You still deny that this could also influence black violence, even though we have both a direct link between CAG repeats and murder and rape from the study by Rajender et al and a theoretical link via the link between higher testosterone and lower MAOA activation from the study by Sjoberg et al. You seem to want to dismiss black masculinity, even when it supports a common understanding that black men are dangerous. Face it: Jack Johnson won.

dearieme said...

"soccer... seems to me to be a sprinter's sport": I don't think so. It needs co-ordination, agility, and acute spatial awareness. Speed, strength and stamina all help, as does leaping ability, but if you can't control the football, or change direction quickly, or see the way that play is developing, you are at a considerable disadvantage.

Anonymous said...

Thomas said...
I think it has something to do with the way the phlogiston moves in different epicycles in black and white bodies.

Don't forget the flow of blood, phlegm, bile, and my favorite black bile.

Dan J said...

I once read a newspaper item that claimed black people are at a disadvantage in javelin and other throwing sports because whites have a greater range of motion in the arms and shoulders.

If true, that would suggest whites indeed make better swimmers too, as swimmers need really, really good shoulder flexibility.

Anonymous said...

kaka - to you keep repeating the same false popularisms here about W.African supremacy that have already been debunked

adsfsdsfdada is always keen to promote absolute black physical superiority (over everyone else) just as he/she promotes absolute jewish intellectual superiority (over everyone else).

Mike McK said...

The article talks of west africans and sprinting. On the other hand, west africans are not particularly good at distance running.

East africans dominate distance almost as much as west africans dominate sprints, but are not particularly adept at sprinting.

Apparently the Navel Power works in mysterious ways.

headache said...

adfasdfasdf said...



Chinese won the most medals in 2008, so they must be the best athletes.



especially with all that dope the communist party made them drink.

Anonymous said...

Seems pretty high, doesn't it?

Albertosaurus

Anonymous said...

I'm white, I run a good marathon time (2:45), but I sink like a stone in water. As a six year old I could run six miles at the local track without training, but I couldn't pass the beginner/intermediate swim class at the YMCA after three tries.

My kid is a chip off the old block: he's about to fail his swim class in the shallow end of the pool at summer camp . Now that I've read this I can stop bouncing basketballs off his head and calling him a failure.

The curse of the high belly button strikes again.

not a hacker said...

Wrong, Stari, Al Campanis was asked by Ted Koppel why blacks didn't show up in the baseball front offices. nothing to do with the field of play. His answer was, "perhaps they lack the neccesities."

Whiskey said...

Doesn't anyone here know what's involved with Swimming?

Its a highly technical, "coached" sport where technique makes a loser a winner, or vice-versa, requiring constant training, lots of non-natural technique, and low payoff. Other than Mark Spitz and Michael Phelps, name a US Olympic Men's Swimmer (the girls who posed in Playboy don't count).

You can't. Because the payoff is low.

If you are a tall/strong Black athlete, you can have a much higher payoff and without the requirements of an upper-middle class background for coaching in basketball or football. If you are a White middle class guy, your choice is swimming or other sports not dominated by Blacks, because of the high coaching/skill requirements and low payoffs.

jody said...

cullen jones did pick swimming over basketball. like all good athletes, he played a couple sports. his dad wanted him to play basketball in college. instead, cullen switched full time to swimming. this is backwards from how tim duncan did it, where he started out with swimming as his number 1 sport, but switched to basketball.

the current NCAA champion at 50, josh schneider, switched from football to swimming.

this is pretty normal for good athletes. for instance, roger federer and rafael nadal were both national level soccer players, before switching full time to tennis.

Anonymous said...

"Chinese won the most medals in 2008, so they must be the best athletes."

As a race, not really. As a race they were number 2. As a race Whites were still number one. The Chinese are a bit specialised like the blacks.

adsfasdfsadf said...

dfasdfasdf said...

Chinese won the most medals in 2008, so they must be the best athletes.

especially with all that dope the communist party made them drink.


They still didn't win most of the prestige medals. Besides, doping has been done by every race, so it evens out. Look at baseballs. Whites and blacks have doped up quite a lot.

sdfasdasdfsdf said...

cont.

Would a white guy prefer to win the 100 m or 5000 m? He would prefer to win the sprint cuz it's more thrilling, exciting, and popular. 100 m sprint is an event everyone wants to win.
Chinese would have more thrilled with their countryman winning the 100 m sprint than ping pong, which doesn't attract top athletic talent. But which people dominate the 100 m sprint? Also, 100 m sprinters are not 'narrowly talented'. They are ideally built for many sports: basketball, boxing, wrestling, MMA, football, baseball, soccer. They are not just strong in the legs but in every inch of their body.

Would a white American guy prefer to excel at soccer or football? Football of course. And in football, would he rather be a defensive lineman who make tackles and sack quarterbacks for fame and glory or offensive linemen who just do grudge work? Of course, most white guys would prefer to play running back, receiver, or defensive linemen than play offensive linemen or kicker. But blacks dominate the most prized positions. Whites do dominate the quarterback position, but it is not a power position. And generally, black quarterbacks have been better at running and fending off the defense than white quarterbacks. Randall Cunningham took some big hits but still landed on his feet and threw winning passes.

I know what you're gonna do next. You're gonna mention synchro swimming and badminton as examples where blacks don't dominate, implying blacks are only good at 'narrow' athletic events.. etc, etc blah blah blah. It's really getting tiresome. It's really like a black guy saying whites are only narrowly smart in adding, logic, and reasoning but not in rap lyrics and making noises out of a turntable. Enough already.

castefootball.org, a therapeutic site for white males with wounded pride, has produced and encouraged a lot of ignorance and idiocy.

Oh, and btw, men are not better at women in sports. They are only narrowly better in certain events that require muscle power. But women are better at sewing and knitting, and who's to say those aren't sports?

asdfasdasdfasdf said...

"adsfsdsfdada is always keen to promote absolute black physical superiority (over everyone else) just as he/she promotes absolute jewish intellectual superiority (over everyone else)."

GENERAL superiority. There is no absolute superiority among humanity. No one or no people are totally better at everything over everyone else. But, generally speaking, some people and races are advantaged over others.

GENERALLY speaking,blacks have a significant advantage over other races in athleticism and Ashkenazi Jews have a general advantage over goyim in IQ.
But it is not absolute because not every black guy is better than ALL non-blacks. And there may be certain events like distance swimming where whites have the advantage. But we are primarily land animals, not fish, so I give more credit to land sports.

Also, we need to compare the races in sports where they have
EQUAL ACCESS and EQUAL ENTHUSIASM. Those are the necessary CONTROLS for this experiment.

The sports where all races have equal access and equal enthusiasm in the US are basketball, football, sprint, and baseball. (If many non-blacks do NOT pursue 100 m sprint, it is not due to lack of interest but knowledge that they have no hope against blacks.)

Football, basketball, and the sprint are more athletic than baseball, and blacks dominate them much more so than they do baseball, where even Asians can do very well. Even so, many of the dominant hitters in baseball have been black. And the best base stealers have also been black. And being faster runners, blacks have made some of the most spectacular catches in baseball.

Basketball, a game of speed, coordination, and strength is essentially a black man's game. In football, the power positions are owned by blacks. Sprints are completely dominated by blacks. And even in sports where few blacks participate, they do amazingly well. The Williams sisters in Tennis for example, and Tiger Woods in golf.

jody said...

there is no sprinter who does not swim both the 50 and 100. that's retarded. that's like saying there are some basketball players who reject the 3 point line because it is not a classical part of hoops.

there are some guys who come down from 200 to 100, like michael phelps and ian thorpe, who are some of the best 100 swimmers. but they do not bother with 50, because there are 15 guys who explode faster and will always beat them. phelps and thorpe are still fast and still explode, just not rapidly enough to be the best at 50. even if they trained for 50, there would still be 10 guys faster than them. being the number 10 guy at 50 is not what they want to do. they are in the same place as michael johnson was on the track. i think his personal best at 100 meters was 10.09, a world class time that still put him behind 15 other active sprinters.

cullen jones actually does not perform well on a reliable basis, and gets beat all the time at 50. he did not even final at the 2008 olympics.

he's also not really the fastest american ever. he was just the fastest american at the time when the new suits were at their most effective and when they were still legal. without the new suits he is still very fast but not the fastest ever. he is probably about the number 5 fastest american ever.

he routinely performs better at 100 meters and was the number 4 american at 100 meters for a few years. he regularly defended his place on the US national team 4x100 relay. lots of guys tried to take that 4th spot on the relay away from him and he kept beating them. he's probably fallen behind the 100 meter field now though.

he made way more money in swimming than he ever would have made in basketball. nike has already paid him between 5 million and 10 million dollars in endorsements.

asdfasdfasdf said...

"Chinese won the most medals in 2008, so they must be the best athletes."

As a race, not really. As a race they were number 2. As a race Whites were still number one. The Chinese are a bit specialised like the blacks.


Okay genius. Whites are the best athletes in the world, and Asians are the second best!!!! I guess blacks are a measly third.

It kill me.... HEADACHE. You'd think there would be honest politically incorrect dicussion of race among alt right crowd, but we get the same kind of Tim Rice/Malcolm Gladwellian BS denying the OBVIOUS. Alt Right is politically incorrect when arguing that whites are smarter than blacks but cannot accept the fact that blacks may be better at sports. They become just like the fools who swallow every disingenuous and specious 'clever' drivel cooked up by Gladwell.

I'll say this just one more time because you dummies are giving me a headache.

If we are to make observations about race and athletics, we need focus ONLY ON sports that all races--or races involved in the dicussion--have EQUAL ACCESS and EQUAL ENTHUSIASM. If only Asians show interest in Karate and win all the prizes, it doesn't mean that they are naturally better at Karate.
Our conclusions about race and sports have merit ONLY WHEN the BEST of all races have equal access and equal enthusiasm. Every experiment needs CONTROLS.
Without controls, it's anything goes.

Take India, a nation of 1 billion. I've seen some big powerful Asian-Indians, many of them beefier and bigger than most East Asians. However, India sucks at sports cuz there's hardly any national program or organization. And not much infrastructure, public or private, that encourages kids to enjoy and excel at sports. But that doesn't mean Chinese are racially better at sports than Asian-Indians. Even Taiwan wins more medals than India. Most Indians lack access and enthusiasm--for whatever reason.

Africa too is brimming with athletic talent but it's a continent torn apart by violence, poverty, corruption, and whatnot. Except for the relatively few Africans who get a chance to train in the West, most of the talent goes undeveloped, unnoticed, and unrealized. NO matter how natural the talent, it aint much without training and coaching.

So, we have to look at sports where all races have EQUAL ACCESS and show EQUAL ENTHUSIASM. Never mind sychro swimming, team handball, ping pong, badmiton, rifle shooting, fencing(where blacks have done rather well given their vast underrepresentation), rowing, equestrian, etc.

When we focus on the sports where all races have equal access and equal enthusiasm, it becomes obvious which race generally dominates and outshines other races in speed and power.

Of course, this domination is NOT ABSOLUTE. There was the Chinese guy who won the 110 hurdles in 2004. But consider the fact that China has 1.3 billion and barely managed to squeeze out a winner in a power track event.

When he won, I recall one of the sports casters saying China, with 1.3 billion people, could well be a major threat in track and field in 2008. The other sports caster remained tightlipped and didn't say anything. He knew he would get in trouble if he said what was probably in his mind: "It doesn't matter how many people China has. They simply don't have the physique to win much of anything in track and field power events except by some freak of nature." Had he said it, he would have been ostracized and fired.

So, the irony is that liberal MSM, which forbids dicussion of black superiority in sports--fearing its social implications--, are joined by the castefootball doltish crowd. Both object to the notion of black superiority in sports for their own agendas. Liberals don't wanna spread 'fear of blacks' and white nationalists don't wanna swallow their hurt pride. Pathetic.

jody said...

cullen jones is also not an exception. i've now seen many black athletes become very good competitive swimmers. the main issue for blacks is that they do not like to be in the water, not that they do not have the potential to be good swimmers.

after university of florida starting recruiting africans from the carribean for NCAA swimming, they have become more common at the highest level. it started with anthony nesty beating matt biondi to win the 100 meter butterfly at the 1988 olympics.

today, there is a black NCAA champion almost every year. in 2010, shaune fraser was number 1 at 200 buttefly and number 2 at 200 IM. those are michael phelps' events. so a black guy is beating all the white guys in america at the NCAA level. the year before shaune fraser, bradley ally was the NCAA 200 IM champion.

the number 2 high school sprinter right now is a black guy from texas (can't remember his name off the top of my head), and the only reason he is not the number 1 high school sprinter is because the number 1 guy is a russian immigrant, vlad morozov. otherwise the top NCAA recruit in 2010 would be another black sprinter.

BamaGirl said...

"Also, am I missing something about soccer/futbol that allows Europeans to continue to dominate? It seems to me to be a sprinter's sport like basketball and football receiver positions."

If you've ever played soccer you would know that it is basically an endurance sport which requires short bursts of speed (usually while you're already winded). This is especially true for mid-field positions. Not a sprinters sport by any means.

Steve Sailer said...

Jody,

Are blacks doing well at swimming beyond 100m?

Swimmers go about 1/4th as fast as runners, so 100m requires roughly similar endurance as 400m on land. There is a fall-off among African-Americans from 400m to 800m in track.

Anonymous said...

more liberal omphaloskepsis.

Anonymous said...

If we are to make observations about race and athletics, we need focus ONLY ON sports that all races--or races involved in the dicussion--have EQUAL ACCESS and EQUAL ENTHUSIASM.



Since races are not going to have equal passion - or EQUAL PASSION - for sports at which one race does poorly compared to another, that means we can talk about very few sports indeed.

Anonymous said...

"adsfsdsfdada is always keen to promote absolute black physical superiority (over everyone else) just as he/she promotes absolute jewish intellectual superiority (over everyone else)."



Word.

It would not be so bad if he threw together rational arguments in support of his positions, but he reasons with all the skill of Trooth.

Anonymous said...

Doesn't anyone here know what's involved with Swimming?

Its a highly technical, "coached" sport where technique makes a loser a winner, or vice-versa, requiring constant training, lots of non-natural technique, and low payoff.



That sounds like sport, period. But then, sport is not something the typical HBD nerd has any great familiarity with.

Anonymous said...

Football, basketball, and the sprint are more athletic than baseball




That's a widespread misconception, but a misconception all the same. Running is not inherently more "athletic" than are other physical activities. The Greeks invented organized sports, and the games at their Olympics included running, boxing, wrestling, long jump, discus throw, and javelin throw.

n/a said...

nooffensebut,

Again: there are many genetic differences between blacks and whites. You can't simply look at a single genetic variant and assume you'll be able to correctly predict racial differences in complex phenotypes. If you want to know how races differ in particular trait, measure the trait directly and compare.

The studies I've seen show similar amounts of total skeletal muscle for blacks and whites in America. American blacks may (or may not) average slightly greater muscle mass in recent times; if they do, one would still need to control for, e.g., differences in physical activity, to see if there's anything to explain, before trying to pinpoint a genetic cause.

I was responding to a claim about strength, not muscle mass. One study finds Senegalese sprinters are weaker than Italian sprinters: "S demonstrated lower values in muscle abilities related to high-speed contractions, suggesting that S sprinters had a lower percentage of fast twitch fibres. This is likely to be compensated for by the lower level of internal work due to longer and lighter legs." I've seen several studies showing greater strength for a given circumference of muscle for whites. White high school seniors have slightly (not significantly) greater grip strength than their black classmates (Journal of Applied Psycholog 1981, Vol. 66, No. 5, 613-61; "Level and Factor Structure Differences in Selected Abilities Across Race and Sex Groups") -- that's despite the fact that black males put more effort into strength training.

"Face it: Jack Johnson won."

Bizarre. Trying to sound like Andre(i/a)? I won't try to guess what argument you're trying to make here, but if boxing matches were decided by who had the more impressive physique, Jim Jeffries would have won. Other points (mostly via Wikipedia):

"Jeffries had not fought in six years and had to lose weight to get back to his championship fighting weight.[4]"

"Johnson's boxing style was very distinctive. He developed a more patient approach than was customary in that day: playing defensively, waiting for a mistake, and then capitalizing on it. [. . .] Johnson's style was very effective, but it was criticized in the press as being cowardly and devious." (Johnson was trained by a Polish Jew.)

"On April 5, 1915, Johnson lost his title to Jess Willard, a working cowboy from Kansas who did not start boxing until he was almost thirty years old."

You may also want to go check who the current heavyweight champions are.

RGH said...

Belly-button level may be an advantage for sprinters, but a high center of gravity is death in football (unless you are a receiver who doesn't have to block much). In football, other things equal, the low man wins. And low-center-of-gravity blacks are still faster than low-center-of-gravity whites, on average.

nooffensebut said...

For the record, all sports talk causes my eyes to glaze over. n/a missed the point of the Jack Johnson archetype. I’m only interested in this subject because hormonal effects on impulsive violence is a matter of life and death.

Most importantly, there sure is a lot of pretentious nonsense about the you-can’t-ascribe-a-complex-behavior-to-one-gene cliché. When did impulsive violence become considered so complex? Why didn’t anyone tell Han Brunner? When was the last the last time an animal’s behavior was described as too complex to be attributable to a single gene? Of course, I wasn’t talking about just one gene.

Lastly, I assume that the Andre to whom n/a refers is Andre3000. Therefore, I feel completely insulted. My funk sounds so funky that it is beyond all comparisons. Word.

Anonymous said...

http://www.brass-instruments.co.uk/ not just what we're against. [url=http://www.giessen-staerken.de/]hollister online shop[/url] the body sports a beautiful jet black color. There will be no horse-drawn carriage for Kate Middleton. hollister deutschland Although it's not common for a bride to consult her groom about what bridal gown to wear.